Tuesday, 12 June 2012

Kailasanathar Kovil (Tharamangalam Temple)

Kailasanathar Kovil  (Tharamangalam Temple)    
 
     It is known for its architectural beauty that consists of very detailed statues and stone carvings, along with a rotating lotus flower in its ceiling.

     30 km from Salem. A Siva temple, perhaps the most beautiful of its kind in Salem District.  Parts of it existed as early as the tenth century: as it stands now, it is the product of the Gatti Mudhali dynasty of the seventeenth century.  Reconstruction and collaboration of the old temple was begun by Mummudi, continued by Siyazhi, and was brought near completion by Vanagamudi.  This West facing temple is enclosed by a massive stone wall measuring 306’ and 164’ reportedly built in the thirteenth century.  The main entrance tower (5 storey’s 90’high) is conceived as a chariot on wheels, drawn by elephants and horses.  Twice a year, during August-September and February – March for three days in succession, the rays of the evening, sun shine through the entrance tower, the portico, and enters the sanctum sanctorum and falls on the deity.  The consort of Kailasanathar is Sivakami.
 

It is a paradise to lover of sculpture. The Kailasanathar temple here vividly portrays the dance competition between Siva and Kail.  The two sculptures depicting the episode make us spellbound and we even forget that we are spectators of mere sculptures and think we are actual participants of that event so lively are they done.  The Bikshadana is another marvel, the Rishipatni who offers food for the medicant Siva has forgotten herself in His beauty without even knowing the pilfering parrot that pecks at the alms.  The God of Love, Manmatha releasing his sugarcane bow and Rati (the Goddess of Love) beside him, Dakshinamurthi, Valivadham, stone chains and various other sculptures are a feast to the eyes with their minute details and lively experission.
 
 
The temple is right opposite the bus station. A high wall, at places embossed with stone carving (fish, tortoise etc.), creates an expectation that this temple is significant and the visit is not in vain. An impressive 5-tiered gopuram greets you. The inner courtyard is spacious. A pillared corridor surrounds the courtyard. A nandi shirne stands before the main temple.
Entering the temple you will notice the following features:
  • The main shrine is faced by two subsidiary shrines. It is the latter that create a central passage towards the main shrine. I found this scheme to be unique, not seen by me in any temple in Karnataka. Incidentally, this is the first temple I am studying closely as I begin my tour of Tamil Nadu.
                        
  • The space between these three shrines has a fascinating ceiling. A stone wheel ringed with pecking stone parrots is the highlight. It is claimed that the wheel can be freely rotated. Chains, probably of stone too, hang from the same ceiling.
                                               
  • The main shrine stands at a level slightly below the level of the pradakshina patha. A well stands next to the main shrine at the same level.
  • The ambulatory is full of interesting sculptures of gods, goddesses and saints. I admired greatly the figures of Rathi and Manmatha. There is an 18-armed sculpture of Nataraja, excellent by its own merit but not surpassing that of Badami Caves. Included among the saints are the 63 Nayanmars and 4 Nalvars. These are not sculptures for the sake of art alone. The temple is in active use. The sculptures glisten at times in oil. They are often decorated with vermilion and lamps burn in offering before them.
  • There is an underground chamber and ante-chamber which can be accessed by a few steps. These chambers are only 6 feet high. There is a small stone linga, not bigger than one’s thumb. We can be sure its a linga because it stands on a substantial peeta.
  • There are no exquisite carvings on walls like in Belur or Halebid. The beauty is in the sculptures, the pillars and capitals.
It is the pillars that deserve separate praise. Looking at the details, they are exquisitely carved. Looking at the overall arrangment, they are harmonious. They are formal but not rigid. Each pillar is essentially of a square base with octogonal or 16-sided sections or bands. In every section are carvings in bas relief. This basic pillar is joined to a much slender pillar by latticed stonework.
 Theppa Kulam


 These two form a composite pillar. At the corners, three such slender pillars together with the primary pillar form the composite pillar. The slender secondary pillars are not just ornamental. They support the overhanging stonework that rises gracefully towards the capital. On some pillars, elephants, horses and lions are beautifully carved. 

Yalis, or mythical lions, are carved on some pillars. It is said that stone balls in their mouths can be freely rolled.
Had I come during the day, I could have admired the whole thing much better and perhaps made a sketch or two of the pillars and sculptures.

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